Peer reviewed publications in print or other media

Research Investigations

1.         Wallace AM, Hardigan A, Geraghty P, Salim S, Gaffney A, Thankachen J, Arellanos L, D’Armiento JM, Foronjy RF. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates innate immune and proteolytic responses to cigarette smoke exposure in the lung. Toxicol Sci. 2012 Apr;126(2):589-99. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr351.

2.         Brehm A, Geraghty P, Campos M, Garcia-Arcos I, Dabo AJ, Gaffney A, Eden E, Jiang XC, D’Armiento J, Foronjy R. Cathepsin G degradation of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) augments pulmonary inflammation. FASEB J. 2014 May;28(5):2318-31. doi: 10.1096/fj.13-246843.

3.         Gaffney AW, Hang JQ, Lee MS, Su L, Zhang FY, Christiani DC. Socioeconomicstatus is associated with reduced lung function in China: an analysis from a large cross-sectional study in Shanghai. BMC Public Health. 2016 Feb 1;16:96. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-2752-3.

4.         Gaffney AW, Hang JQ, Lee MS, Su L, Zhang FY, Christiani DC. Commuting mode and pulmonary function in Shanghai, China. Eur Respir J. 2016 Mar;47(3):733-41. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00637-2015. 

5.         Gaffney AW, Woolhander S, Himmelstein D, McCormick D. Disparities inpulmonary fibrosis care in the United States: an analysis from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 Aug 8;18(1):618.

6.         Gaffney A*, Christopher A*, Katz A, Chateau D, McDougall C, Bor D, Himmelstein D, Woolhandler S, McCormick D. The Incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis during “emerging adulthood” in the USA and Canada: a population-based study. J Gen Intern Med. 2019 Jul;34(7):1244-1250. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-05006-6.

7.         Gaffney A, McCormick D, Bor DH, Goldman A, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU. The effects on hospital utilization of the 1966 and 2014 health insurance coverage expansions in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Aug 6;171(3):172-180. doi: 10.7326/M18-2806.

8.         Hawks L, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU, Bor DH, Gaffney A, McCormick D. Association between forced sexual initiation and health outcomes among US women. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Sep 16. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.3500.

9.         Gaffney A, McCormick D, Bor D, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein D. Coverage expansions and utilization of physician care: evidence from the 2014 Affordable Care Act and 1966 Medicare/Medicaid expansions. Am J Public Health. 2019 Dec;109(12):1694-1701. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305330.

10.       Gaffney A, Bor DH, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S, McCormick D. The effect of Veterans Health Administration coverage on cost-related medication nonadherence. Health Aff (Millwood). 2020 Jan;39(1):33-40. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2019.00481.

11.       Gaffney A, White A, Hawks L, Himmelstein D, Woolhandler S, Christiani DC, McCormick D. High-deductible health plans and healthcare access, use, and financial strain in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2020 Jan;17(1):49-56. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201905-400OC.

12:       Hawks L, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S, Bor DH, Gaffney A, McCormick D. Trends in unmet need for physician and preventive services in the United States, 1998-2017. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Jan 27. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.6538.

13:       Gaffney AW, Hawks L, Bor DH, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU, McCormick D. 18.2 Million Individuals at Increased Risk of Severe COVID-19 Illness Are Un- or Underinsured. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2020. doi: [Note: Concise Research Report]

14:       Gaffney AW, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. Illness-Related Work Absence in Mid-April Was Highest on Record. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2020; published online July 27. DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2926.  [Note: Research Letter]

15:       Gaffney AW, Himmelstein D, Woolhandler S. Risk for Severe COVID-19 Illness Among Teachers and Adults Living With School-Aged Children. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020; published online Aug 21. DOI:10.7326/M20-5413.  [Note: Brief Research Report]

16:       Gaffney AW, Himmelstein D, Bor D, McCormick D, Woolhandler S. Home Sick with Coronavirus Symptoms: a National Study, April–May 2020. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2020; published online Sept 10. DOI:10.1007/s11606-020-06159-5.  [Note: Concise Research Report]

17:       Gaffney AW, Himmelstein DU, McCormick D, Woolhandler S. Health and Social Precarity Among Americans Receiving Unemployment Benefits During the COVID-19 Outbreak. Journal of General Internal Medicine.  2020; published online Sept 16. DOI:10.1007/s11606-020-06207-0.  [Note: Concise Research Report]

18:       Gaffney AW, Hawks L, White AC, et al. Health Care Disparities Across the Urban-Rural Divide: A National Study of Individuals with COPD. The Journal of Rural Health.  2020; published online October 11. DOI:10.1111/jrh.12525.

19:       Gaffney AW, Woolhandler S, and Himmelstein DU. Health Needs and Functional Disability Among Mail-Order Pharmacy Users in the US.  JAMA Internal Medicine, December 14, 2020.  [Note: Research Letter]

20:       Gaffney AW, Hawks L, Bor D, et al. National trends and disparities in healthcare access and coverage among adults with asthma and COPD: 1997 – 2018. Chest, 2021.

21:       Cai C, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU, and Gaffney A. Trends in Anxiety and Depression Symptoms During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results from the US Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey. Journal of General Internal Medicine, April 14, 2021. [Note: Concise Research Report]

22:       Gaffney AW, Himmelstein DU, Christiani DC, Woolhandler S. Socioeconomic Inequality in Respiratory Health in the US From 1959 to 2018. JAMA Intern Med. 2021 Jul 1;181(7):968-976.

23:       Himmelstein J, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S, Bor DH, Gaffney A, Zallman L, Dickman S, McCormick D. Health Care Spending And Use Among Hispanic Adults With And Without Limited English Proficiency, 1999-2018. Health Aff (Millwood). 2021 Jul;40(7):1126-1134.

24:       Cai C, Gaffney A, McGregor A, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU, McCormick D, Dickman S. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Outpatient Visit Rates Across 29 Specialties. JAMA Intern Med 2021. [Note: Research Letter].

25:       Rastas C, Bunker D, Gampa V, Gaudet J, Karimi S, Majidi A, Gaurab B, Gaffney A, McCormick D. Association Between High Deductible Health Plans and Cost-Related Non-adherence to Medications Among Americans with Diabetes: an Observational Study. J Gen Intern Med. 2021 Jul 29.

26: Gaffney AW, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. Trends and Disparities in Teleworking During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the USA: May 2020–February 2021. J Gen Inter Med. 2021. [Note: Concise Research Report]

27: Gaffney AW, McCormick D, Woolhandler S, Christiani DC, Himmelstein DU. Prognostic implications of differences in forced vital capacity in black and white US adults: Findings from NHANES III with long-term mortality follow-up. EClinicalMedicine. 2021;39. Available from:

28: Gaffney A, Dickman S, Cai C, McCormick D, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. Medical Uninsurance and Underinsurance Among US Children: Findings From the National Survey of Children’s Health, 2016-2019. JAMA Pediatrics. 2021;Available from: [Note: Research Letter].

29: Gaffney AW, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU. Association of Uninsurance and VA Coverage with the Uptake and Equity of COVID-19 Vaccination: January–March 2021. J Gen Intern Med 2022. [Note: Concise Research Report].

30: Gaffney A, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. Smoking Prevalence during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States. Annals ATS 2022. [Note: Research Letter]

31: Gaffney A, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU. COVID-19 Testing and Incidence Among Uninsured and Insured Individuals in 2020: a National Study. J Gen Intern Med 2022 [Note: Concise Research Report].

32:       Gaffney A, Woolhandler S, Cai C, Bor D, Himmelstein J, McCormick D, et al. Medical Documentation Burden Among US Office-Based Physicians in 2019: A National Study. JAMA IM 2022.  [Note: Research Letter].

33:       Gaffney A, Himmelstein DU, McCormick D, Woolhandler S. Disparities in COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Uptake in the USA: December 2021–February 2022. J Gen Intern Med. 2022 May 24. [Note: Concise Research Report]. 

34:       Gaffney A, Himmelstein DU, Dickman S, McCormick D, Cai C, Woolhandler S. Trends and Disparities in the Distribution of Outpatient Physicians’ Annual Face Time with Patients, 1979–2018. J Gen Intern Med 2022.

35: Dickman SL, Gaffney A, McGregor A, Himmelstein DU, McCormick D, Bor DH, Woolhandler S. Trends in Health Care Use Among Black and White Persons in the US, 1963-2019. JAMA Network Open. 2022 Jun 14;5(6):e2217383.

36:       Himmelstein DU, Dickman SL, McCormick D, Bor DH, Gaffney A, Woolhandler S. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Medical Debt and Subsequent Changes in Social Determinants of Health in the US. JAMA Network Open. 2022 Sep 16;5(9):e2231898.

37:       Gaffney A, Himmelstein DU, Dickman S, McCormick D, Woolhandler S. Uptake and Equity in Influenza Vaccination Among Veterans with VA Coverage, Veterans Without VA Coverage, and Non-Veterans in the USA, 2019–2020. J Gen Intern Med. 2022 Sep 26.

38:       Gaffney A, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. Prevalence and Correlates of Patient Rationing of Insulin in the United States: A National Survey. Ann Intern Med. 2022 Oct 18.   [Note: Brief Research Report]

39:       Narm KE, Wen J, Sung L, Dar S, Kim P, Olson B, Schrager A, Tsay A, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S, Shure N, McCormick D, Gaffney, A.  Chronic Illness in Children and Foregone Care Among Household Adults in the United States: A National Study. Medical Care 2022;10.1097/MLR.0000000000001791.

40:       Gaffney AW, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S, Kahn JG. Hospital Expenditures Under Global Budgeting and Single-Payer Financing: An Economic Analysis, 2021–2030. International Journal of Social Determinants of Health and Health Services. 2023 Jan 30;27551938231152750.

Other peer-reviewed publications

1.         Donato J, Phillips CT, Gaffney AW, VanderLaan PA, Mouded M. A case of hypercalcemia secondary to hot tub lung. Chest. 2014 Dec;146(6):e186-e189. doi: 10.1378/chest.14-0350.

2.         Gaffney A, Woolhandler S, Angell M, Himmelstein DU. Moving forward from the Affordable Care Act to a single-payer system. Am J Public Health. 2016 Jun;106(6):987-8. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2015.303157.

3.         Gaffney AW, Verhoef PA, Hall JB. POINT: Should pulmonary/ICU physicians support single-payer health-care reform? Yes. Chest. 2016 Jul;150(1):9-11. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.02.660. (followed by: Gaffney AW, Verhoef PA, Hall JB. Rebuttal from Drs Gaffney, Verhoef, and Hall. Chest. 2016 Jul;150(1):14-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2016.02.661.)

4.         Gaffney AW, Waitzkin H.  The Affordable Care Act and the transformation of US healthcare. Cuadernos de Relaciones Laborales. 34(2) 2016: 239-261.

5.         Gaffney A, McCormick D. The Affordable Care Act: implications for health-care equity. Lancet. 2017 Apr 8;389(10077):1442-1452. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30786-9.

6.         Gaffney A, Lexchin J; US/Canadian Pharmaceutical Policy Reform Working Group. Healing an ailing pharmaceutical system: prescription for reform for United States and Canada. BMJ. 2018 May 17;361:k1039. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k1039.

7.         Gaffney A, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein D. The effect of large-scale health coverage expansions in wealthy nations on society-wide healthcare utilization. J Gen Intern Med. 2019 Nov 19. doi: 10.1007/s11606-019-05529-y.

8.         Gaffney A, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S, Kahn JG. Pricing Universal Health Care: How Much Would The Use Of Medical Care Rise? Health Affairs 2021;40(1):105–12.

9.         Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU, Ahmed S, Bailey Z, Bassett MT, Bird M, Jacob Bor, David Bor, Olveen Carrasquillo, Merlin Chowkwanyun, Samuel Dickman, Samantha Fisher, Adam Gaffney, Sandro Galea, Richard Gottfriend, Kevin Grumbach, Gordon Guyatt, Helena Hansen, Philip Landrigan, Michael Lighty, Martin McKee, Danny McCormick, Alecia McGregor, Reza Mirza, Julia Morris, Joia Mukherjee, Marion Nestle, Linda Prine, Altaf Saadi, Davida Schiff, Martin Shapiro, Lello Tesema, Atheendar Venkatarami. Public policy and health in the Trump era. The Lancet. 2021.  Published online Feb 10, 2021.

10.       Gaffney AW. Full Coverage of COVID-19-Related Care Was Necessary.  But Do Other Pulmonary Patients Deserve Any Less? Annals ATS. 2021.  Online first.

11.       Gaffney AW. ICU Equity and Regionalization in the COVID-19 Era. Annals ATS. 2022.

12.       Gaffney AW. Disparities in Disease Burden and Treatment of Patients Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Medical Clinics of North America. October 3, 2022. 

Non-peer reviewed scientific or medical publications/materials in print or other media


1.        Gaffney A.  To Heal Humankind: The Right to Health in History (New York, NY: Routledge, 2017).

Reviews, chapters, monographs and editorials

1.         Gaffney A. The neoliberal turn in American health care. Int J Health Serv.


2.         Gaffney A, Christiani DC. Gene-environment interaction from international cohorts: impact on development and evolution of occupational and environmental lung and airway disease. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Jun;36(3):347-57. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1549450.

3.        Gaffney A, Waitzkin H.  Policy, politics, and the intensive care unit.  Civetta, Taylor & Kirby’s Critical Care, fifth edition. 

4.         Gaffney A, Berger ZD, Jha S. Should US doctors mourn for Obamacare? BMJ. 2017

Mar 24;356:j1441. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j1441.

5.         Gaffney A, Berger ZD.  The collapse of Trumpcare and the rise of single payer.  BMJBlog, October 17, 2017.

6:         Gaffney A. Health insurance reform in the United States – what, how, and why? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 2018;37:188-95.

7.         Gaffney A. Illness should not inflict financial ruin. BMJ. 2020 Feb 5;368:m327. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m327.

8.         Gaffney A. Medicare For All: If Not Now, When?, Health Affairs Blog, March 9, 2020.DOI: 10.1377/hblog20200309.156440

9.         Gaffney A, Himmelstein D, Woolhandler S. COVID-19 and US Health Financing: Perils and Possibilities. International Journal of Health Services.  2020.

10.       Gaffney AW, McCormick D, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU. US law enforcement crowd control tactics at anti-racism protests: a public health threat. The Lancet. 2020. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31421-5.

11.       Gaffney A, Himmelstein D, Woolhandler S. How Much Has The Number of Uninsured Risen Since 2016 — And At What Cost To Health And Life? Health Affairs Blog. 2020; published online Oct 29. /do/10.1377/hblog20201027.770793/full.

12.       Gaffney A, Himmelstein D, Woolhandler S. Congressional Budget Office Scores Medicare-For-All: Universal Coverage For Less Spending.  Health Affairs Blog. 2021; published online Feb 16.

13.       Gaffney AW. The Long-COVID Conundrum. The American Journal of Medicine.  2021.  Available from:

14.       Himmelstein D, Woolhandler S, Gaffney A. The US’s broken healthcare system is at the root of vaccine hesitancy. The BMJ Opinion.  Available from:

15.       Gaffney AW, Podolanczuk AJ. Inequity and the Interstitium: Pushing Back on Disparities in Fibrosing Lung Disease in the US and Canada. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022.

16.       Gaffney A, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. A Potential Path to Universal Coverage With Medicare Advantage for All. JAMA 2022;327(16):1615.  [Letter to the Editor]

17.       Gaffney A, Himmelstein DU, Woolhandler S. Reply: Trends in Smoking Prevalence and the Continuing Imperative of Tobacco Control. Annals ATS 2022;AnnalsATS.202204-354LE. [Correspondence: Reply to Letter to the Editor received in response to Research Investigation reference #30].

18.       Gaffney AW. Lung Transplantation Disparities among Patients with IPF: Recognition and Remedy. Annals ATS. 2022 Jun;19(6):899–901.

19.       Gaffney AW. A Medical and Moral Imperative: Testimony for the U.S. Senate Budget Committee “Medicare for All” Hearing. Int J Health Serv. 2022 Sep 1;00207314221122650.